/* * jQuery Nivo Slider v2.5 * http://nivo.dev7studios.com * * Copyright 2011, Gilbert Pellegrom * Free to use and abuse under the MIT license. * http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php * * March 2010 */ (function($) { var NivoSlider = function(element, options){ //Defaults are below var settings = $.extend({}, $.fn.nivoSlider.defaults, options); //Useful variables. Play carefully. var vars = { currentSlide: 0, currentImage: '', totalSlides: 0, randAnim: '', running: false, paused: false, stop: false }; //Get this slider var slider = $(element); slider.data('nivo:vars', vars); slider.css('position','relative'); slider.addClass('nivoSlider'); //Find our slider children var kids = slider.children(); kids.each(function() { var child = $(this); var link = ''; if(!child.is('img')){ if(child.is('a')){ child.addClass('nivo-imageLink'); link = child; } child = child.find('img:first'); } //Get img width & height var childWidth = child.width(); if(childWidth == 0) childWidth = child.attr('width'); var childHeight = child.height(); if(childHeight == 0) childHeight = child.attr('height'); //Resize the slider if(childWidth > slider.width()){ slider.width(childWidth); } if(childHeight > slider.height()){ slider.height(childHeight); } if(link != ''){ link.css('display','none'); } child.css('display','none'); vars.totalSlides++; }); //Set startSlide if(settings.startSlide > 0){ if(settings.startSlide >= vars.totalSlides) settings.startSlide = vars.totalSlides - 1; vars.currentSlide = settings.startSlide; } //Get initial image if($(kids[vars.currentSlide]).is('img')){ vars.currentImage = $(kids[vars.currentSlide]); } else { vars.currentImage = $(kids[vars.currentSlide]).find('img:first'); } //Show initial link if($(kids[vars.currentSlide]).is('a')){ $(kids[vars.currentSlide]).css('display','block'); } //Set first background slider.css('background','url("'+ vars.currentImage.attr('src') +'") no-repeat'); //Create caption slider.append( $('

').css({ display:'none', opacity:settings.captionOpacity }) ); // Process caption function var processCaption = function(settings){ var nivoCaption = $('.nivo-caption', slider); if(vars.currentImage.attr('title') != ''){ var title = vars.currentImage.attr('title'); // if(title.substr(0,1) == '#') title = $(title).html(); if(nivoCaption.css('display') == 'block'){ nivoCaption.find('p').fadeOut(settings.animSpeed, function(){ $(this).html(title); $(this).fadeIn(settings.animSpeed); }); } else { nivoCaption.find('p').html(title); } nivoCaption.fadeIn(settings.animSpeed); } else { nivoCaption.fadeOut(settings.animSpeed); } } //Process initial caption processCaption(settings); //In the words of Super Mario "let's a go!" var timer = 0; if(!settings.manualAdvance && kids.length > 1){ timer = setInterval(function(){ nivoRun(slider, kids, settings, false); }, settings.pauseTime); } //Add Direction nav if(settings.directionNav){ slider.append('
'+ settings.prevText +''+ settings.nextText +'
'); //Hide Direction nav if(settings.directionNavHide){ $('.nivo-directionNav', slider).hide(); slider.hover(function(){ $('.nivo-directionNav', slider).show(); }, function(){ $('.nivo-directionNav', slider).hide(); }); } $('a.nivo-prevNav', slider).live('click', function(){ if(vars.running) return false; clearInterval(timer); timer = ''; vars.currentSlide -= 2; nivoRun(slider, kids, settings, 'prev'); }); $('a.nivo-nextNav', slider).live('click', function(){ if(vars.running) return false; clearInterval(timer); timer = ''; nivoRun(slider, kids, settings, 'next'); }); } //Add Control nav if(settings.controlNav){ var nivoControl = $('
'); slider.append(nivoControl); for(var i = 0; i < kids.length; i++){ if(settings.controlNavThumbs){ var child = kids.eq(i); if(!child.is('img')){ child = child.find('img:first'); } if (settings.controlNavThumbsFromRel) { nivoControl.append(''); } else { nivoControl.append(''); } } else { nivoControl.append(''+ (i + 1) +''); } } //Set initial active link $('.nivo-controlNav a:eq('+ vars.currentSlide +')', slider).addClass('active'); $('.nivo-controlNav a', slider).live('click', function(){ if(vars.running) return false; if($(this).hasClass('active')) return false; clearInterval(timer); timer = ''; slider.css('background','url("'+ vars.currentImage.attr('src') +'") no-repeat'); vars.currentSlide = $(this).attr('rel') - 1; nivoRun(slider, kids, settings, 'control'); }); } //Keyboard Navigation if(settings.keyboardNav){ $(window).keypress(function(event){ //Left if(event.keyCode == '37'){ if(vars.running) return false; clearInterval(timer); timer = ''; vars.currentSlide-=2; nivoRun(slider, kids, settings, 'prev'); } //Right if(event.keyCode == '39'){ if(vars.running) return false; clearInterval(timer); timer = ''; nivoRun(slider, kids, settings, 'next'); } }); } //For pauseOnHover setting if(settings.pauseOnHover){ slider.hover(function(){ vars.paused = true; clearInterval(timer); timer = ''; }, function(){ vars.paused = false; //Restart the timer if(timer == '' && !settings.manualAdvance){ timer = setInterval(function(){ nivoRun(slider, kids, settings, false); }, settings.pauseTime); } }); } //Event when Animation finishes slider.bind('nivo:animFinished', function(){ vars.running = false; //Hide child links $(kids).each(function(){ if($(this).is('a')){ $(this).css('display','none'); } }); //Show current link if($(kids[vars.currentSlide]).is('a')){ $(kids[vars.currentSlide]).css('display','block'); } //Restart the timer if(timer == '' && !vars.paused && !settings.manualAdvance){ timer = setInterval(function(){ nivoRun(slider, kids, settings, false); }, settings.pauseTime); } //Trigger the afterChange callback settings.afterChange.call(this); }); // Add slices for slice animations var createSlices = function(slider, settings, vars){ for(var i = 0; i < settings.slices; i++){ var sliceWidth = Math.round(slider.width()/settings.slices); if(i == settings.slices-1){ slider.append( $('
').css({ left:(sliceWidth*i)+'px', width:(slider.width()-(sliceWidth*i))+'px', height:'0px', opacity:'0', background: 'url("'+ vars.currentImage.attr('src') +'") no-repeat -'+ ((sliceWidth + (i * sliceWidth)) - sliceWidth) +'px 0%' }) ); } else { slider.append( $('
').css({ left:(sliceWidth*i)+'px', width:sliceWidth+'px', height:'0px', opacity:'0', background: 'url("'+ vars.currentImage.attr('src') +'") no-repeat -'+ ((sliceWidth + (i * sliceWidth)) - sliceWidth) +'px 0%' }) ); } } } // Add boxes for box animations var createBoxes = function(slider, settings, vars){ var boxWidth = Math.round(slider.width()/settings.boxCols); var boxHeight = Math.round(slider.height()/settings.boxRows); for(var rows = 0; rows < settings.boxRows; rows++){ for(var cols = 0; cols < settings.boxCols; cols++){ if(cols == settings.boxCols-1){ slider.append( $('
').css({ opacity:0, left:(boxWidth*cols)+'px', top:(boxHeight*rows)+'px', width:(slider.width()-(boxWidth*cols))+'px', height:boxHeight+'px', background: 'url("'+ vars.currentImage.attr('src') +'") no-repeat -'+ ((boxWidth + (cols * boxWidth)) - boxWidth) +'px -'+ ((boxHeight + (rows * boxHeight)) - boxHeight) +'px' }) ); } else { slider.append( $('
').css({ opacity:0, left:(boxWidth*cols)+'px', top:(boxHeight*rows)+'px', width:boxWidth+'px', height:boxHeight+'px', background: 'url("'+ vars.currentImage.attr('src') +'") no-repeat -'+ ((boxWidth + (cols * boxWidth)) - boxWidth) +'px -'+ ((boxHeight + (rows * boxHeight)) - boxHeight) +'px' }) ); } } } } // Private run method var nivoRun = function(slider, kids, settings, nudge){ //Get our vars var vars = slider.data('nivo:vars'); //Trigger the lastSlide callback if(vars && (vars.currentSlide == vars.totalSlides - 1)){ settings.lastSlide.call(this); } // Stop if((!vars || vars.stop) && !nudge) return false; //Trigger the beforeChange callback settings.beforeChange.call(this); //Set current background before change if(!nudge){ slider.css('background','url("'+ vars.currentImage.attr('src') +'") no-repeat'); } else { if(nudge == 'prev'){ slider.css('background','url("'+ vars.currentImage.attr('src') +'") no-repeat'); } if(nudge == 'next'){ slider.css('background','url("'+ vars.currentImage.attr('src') +'") no-repeat'); } } vars.currentSlide++; //Trigger the slideshowEnd callback if(vars.currentSlide == vars.totalSlides){ vars.currentSlide = 0; settings.slideshowEnd.call(this); } if(vars.currentSlide < 0) vars.currentSlide = (vars.totalSlides - 1); //Set vars.currentImage if($(kids[vars.currentSlide]).is('img')){ vars.currentImage = $(kids[vars.currentSlide]); } else { vars.currentImage = $(kids[vars.currentSlide]).find('img:first'); } //Set active links if(settings.controlNav){ $('.nivo-controlNav a', slider).removeClass('active'); $('.nivo-controlNav a:eq('+ vars.currentSlide +')', slider).addClass('active'); } //Process caption processCaption(settings); // Remove any slices from last transition $('.nivo-slice', slider).remove(); // Remove any boxes from last transition $('.nivo-box', slider).remove(); if(settings.effect == 'random'){ var anims = new Array('sliceDownRight','sliceDownLeft','sliceUpRight','sliceUpLeft','sliceUpDown','sliceUpDownLeft','fold','fade','boxRandom','boxRain','boxRainReverse'); vars.randAnim = anims[Math.floor(Math.random()*(anims.length + 1))]; if(vars.randAnim == undefined) vars.randAnim = 'fade'; } //Run random effect from specified set (eg: effect:'fold,fade') if(settings.effect.indexOf(',') != -1){ var anims = settings.effect.split(','); vars.randAnim = anims[Math.floor(Math.random()*(anims.length))]; if(vars.randAnim == undefined) vars.randAnim = 'fade'; } //Run effects vars.running = true; if(settings.effect == 'sliceDown' || settings.effect == 'sliceDownRight' || vars.randAnim == 'sliceDownRight' || settings.effect == 'sliceDownLeft' || vars.randAnim == 'sliceDownLeft'){ createSlices(slider, settings, vars); var timeBuff = 0; var i = 0; var slices = $('.nivo-slice', slider); if(settings.effect == 'sliceDownLeft' || vars.randAnim == 'sliceDownLeft') slices = $('.nivo-slice', slider)._reverse(); slices.each(function(){ var slice = $(this); slice.css({ 'top': '0px' }); if(i == settings.slices-1){ setTimeout(function(){ slice.animate({ height:'100%', opacity:'1.0' }, settings.animSpeed, '', function(){ slider.trigger('nivo:animFinished'); }); }, (100 + timeBuff)); } else { setTimeout(function(){ slice.animate({ height:'100%', opacity:'1.0' }, settings.animSpeed); }, (100 + timeBuff)); } timeBuff += 50; i++; }); } else if(settings.effect == 'sliceUp' || settings.effect == 'sliceUpRight' || vars.randAnim == 'sliceUpRight' || settings.effect == 'sliceUpLeft' || vars.randAnim == 'sliceUpLeft'){ createSlices(slider, settings, vars); var timeBuff = 0; var i = 0; var slices = $('.nivo-slice', slider); if(settings.effect == 'sliceUpLeft' || vars.randAnim == 'sliceUpLeft') slices = $('.nivo-slice', slider)._reverse(); slices.each(function(){ var slice = $(this); slice.css({ 'bottom': '0px' }); if(i == settings.slices-1){ setTimeout(function(){ slice.animate({ height:'100%', opacity:'1.0' }, settings.animSpeed, '', function(){ slider.trigger('nivo:animFinished'); }); }, (100 + timeBuff)); } else { setTimeout(function(){ slice.animate({ height:'100%', opacity:'1.0' }, settings.animSpeed); }, (100 + timeBuff)); } timeBuff += 50; i++; }); } else if(settings.effect == 'sliceUpDown' || settings.effect == 'sliceUpDownRight' || vars.randAnim == 'sliceUpDown' || settings.effect == 'sliceUpDownLeft' || vars.randAnim == 'sliceUpDownLeft'){ createSlices(slider, settings, vars); var timeBuff = 0; var i = 0; var v = 0; var slices = $('.nivo-slice', slider); if(settings.effect == 'sliceUpDownLeft' || vars.randAnim == 'sliceUpDownLeft') slices = $('.nivo-slice', slider)._reverse(); slices.each(function(){ var slice = $(this); if(i == 0){ slice.css('top','0px'); i++; } else { slice.css('bottom','0px'); i = 0; } if(v == settings.slices-1){ setTimeout(function(){ slice.animate({ height:'100%', opacity:'1.0' }, settings.animSpeed, '', function(){ slider.trigger('nivo:animFinished'); }); }, (100 + timeBuff)); } else { setTimeout(function(){ slice.animate({ height:'100%', opacity:'1.0' }, settings.animSpeed); }, (100 + timeBuff)); } timeBuff += 50; v++; }); } else if(settings.effect == 'fold' || vars.randAnim == 'fold'){ createSlices(slider, settings, vars); var timeBuff = 0; var i = 0; $('.nivo-slice', slider).each(function(){ var slice = $(this); var origWidth = slice.width(); slice.css({ top:'0px', height:'100%', width:'0px' }); if(i == settings.slices-1){ setTimeout(function(){ slice.animate({ width:origWidth, opacity:'1.0' }, settings.animSpeed, '', function(){ slider.trigger('nivo:animFinished'); }); }, (100 + timeBuff)); } else { setTimeout(function(){ slice.animate({ width:origWidth, opacity:'1.0' }, settings.animSpeed); }, (100 + timeBuff)); } timeBuff += 50; i++; }); } else if(settings.effect == 'fade' || vars.randAnim == 'fade'){ createSlices(slider, settings, vars); var firstSlice = $('.nivo-slice:first', slider); firstSlice.css({ 'height': '100%', 'width': slider.width() + 'px' }); firstSlice.animate({ opacity:'1.0' }, (settings.animSpeed*2), '', function(){ slider.trigger('nivo:animFinished'); }); } else if(settings.effect == 'slideInRight' || vars.randAnim == 'slideInRight'){ createSlices(slider, settings, vars); var firstSlice = $('.nivo-slice:first', slider); firstSlice.css({ 'height': '100%', 'width': '0px', 'opacity': '1' }); firstSlice.animate({ width: slider.width() + 'px' }, (settings.animSpeed*2), '', function(){ slider.trigger('nivo:animFinished'); }); } else if(settings.effect == 'slideInLeft' || vars.randAnim == 'slideInLeft'){ createSlices(slider, settings, vars); var firstSlice = $('.nivo-slice:first', slider); firstSlice.css({ 'height': '100%', 'width': '0px', 'opacity': '1', 'left': '', 'right': '0px' }); firstSlice.animate({ width: slider.width() + 'px' }, (settings.animSpeed*2), '', function(){ // Reset positioning firstSlice.css({ 'left': '0px', 'right': '' }); slider.trigger('nivo:animFinished'); }); } else if(settings.effect == 'boxRandom' || vars.randAnim == 'boxRandom'){ createBoxes(slider, settings, vars); var totalBoxes = settings.boxCols * settings.boxRows; var i = 0; var timeBuff = 0; var boxes = shuffle($('.nivo-box', slider)); boxes.each(function(){ var box = $(this); if(i == totalBoxes-1){ setTimeout(function(){ box.animate({ opacity:'1' }, settings.animSpeed, '', function(){ slider.trigger('nivo:animFinished'); }); }, (100 + timeBuff)); } else { setTimeout(function(){ box.animate({ opacity:'1' }, settings.animSpeed); }, (100 + timeBuff)); } timeBuff += 20; i++; }); } else if(settings.effect == 'boxRain' || vars.randAnim == 'boxRain' || settings.effect == 'boxRainReverse' || vars.randAnim == 'boxRainReverse'){ createBoxes(slider, settings, vars); var totalBoxes = settings.boxCols * settings.boxRows; var i = 0; var timeBuff = 0; // Split boxes into 2D array var rowIndex = 0; var colIndex = 0; var box2Darr = new Array(); box2Darr[rowIndex] = new Array(); var boxes = $('.nivo-box', slider); if(settings.effect == 'boxRainReverse' || vars.randAnim == 'boxRainReverse'){ boxes = $('.nivo-box', slider)._reverse(); } boxes.each(function(){ box2Darr[rowIndex][colIndex] = $(this); colIndex++; if(colIndex == settings.boxCols){ rowIndex++; colIndex = 0; box2Darr[rowIndex] = new Array(); } }); // Run animation for(var cols = 0; cols < (settings.boxCols * 2); cols++){ var prevCol = cols; for(var rows = 0; rows < settings.boxRows; rows++){ if(prevCol >= 0 && prevCol < settings.boxCols){ /* Due to some weird JS bug with loop vars being used in setTimeout, this is wrapped with an anonymous function call */ (function(row, col, time, i, totalBoxes) { var box = $(box2Darr[row][col]); if(i == totalBoxes-1){ setTimeout(function(){ box.animate({ opacity:'1' }, settings.animSpeed/1.3, '', function(){ slider.trigger('nivo:animFinished'); }); }, (100 + time)); } else { setTimeout(function(){ box.animate({ opacity:'1' }, settings.animSpeed/1.3); }, (100 + time)); } })(rows, prevCol, timeBuff, i, totalBoxes); i++; } prevCol--; } timeBuff += 100; } } } // Shuffle an array var shuffle = function(arr){ for(var j, x, i = arr.length; i; j = parseInt(Math.random() * i), x = arr[--i], arr[i] = arr[j], arr[j] = x); return arr; } // For debugging var trace = function(msg){ if (this.console && typeof console.log != "undefined") console.log(msg); } // Start / Stop this.stop = function(){ if(!$(element).data('nivo:vars').stop){ $(element).data('nivo:vars').stop = true; trace('Stop Slider'); } } this.start = function(){ if($(element).data('nivo:vars').stop){ $(element).data('nivo:vars').stop = false; trace('Start Slider'); } } //Trigger the afterLoad callback settings.afterLoad.call(this); return this; }; $.fn.nivoSlider = function(options) { return this.each(function(key, value){ var element = $(this); // Return early if this element already has a plugin instance if (element.data('nivoslider')) return element.data('nivoslider'); // Pass options to plugin constructor var nivoslider = new NivoSlider(this, options); // Store plugin object in this element's data element.data('nivoslider', nivoslider); }); }; //Default settings $.fn.nivoSlider.defaults = { effect: 'random', slices: 15, boxCols: 8, boxRows: 4, animSpeed: 500, pauseTime: 30000, startSlide: 0, directionNav: true, directionNavHide: true, controlNav: true, controlNavThumbs: false, controlNavThumbsFromRel: false, controlNavThumbsSearch: '.jpg', controlNavThumbsReplace: '_thumb.jpg', keyboardNav: true, pauseOnHover: true, manualAdvance: false, captionOpacity: 0.8, prevText: 'Prev', nextText: 'Next', beforeChange: function(){}, afterChange: function(){}, slideshowEnd: function(){}, lastSlide: function(){}, afterLoad: function(){} }; $.fn._reverse = [].reverse; })(jQuery);

Richard Estes

American painter Richard Estes has made a career out of fooling the eye. His canvases look like photographs — but they’re not.

As told on NPR:

“You can’t see my paintings in reproduction,” the 82-year-old artist says. That’s because, in reproduction, the paintings — especially his New York cityscapes from the late 1960s — look like photos. He’s called a photo-realist, or hyper-realist — an intense observer of the built environment. But he doesn’t paint the view from his apartment window.

“His window is a photograph,” says Jessica May, co-curator of Estes’ current show at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, D.C.

Estes uses photography as a starting point for painting. He goes out and takes dozens of photographs of the same thing from different angles — street corners, diners, reflections on plate glass windows — then he cuts, pastes and manipulates the pictures. Finally, at his easel, he tries to make his painting as faithful to the photos as he can.

“Often he’s putting two and three photographs together in order to create a complete image, and then basically compressing them into the compositional size and shape that he’s looking for in a finished painting,” May says.

The result is a city street you know you’ve walked on but that doesn’t really exist. “He’ll raise the height of a building,” May says. “He’ll move a car a little bit. He’ll transpose the location of a street lamp or light post. … He composes it.”

But why doesn’t Estes just stop with the photograph? “I don’t know,” he says. “I get more money for the painting, I guess.” He laughs when he says that, but his paintings are part of some major museum collections.

Estes studied art in Chicago in the ’50s, then moved to New York where he got a job as a graphic artist. “I worked in advertising,” he says. “That’s where I started using photographs to make illustrations. I saw all the other people were doing it, all the other illustrators. They didn’t put a model in front of them and make a careful drawing.”

Estes applied those ad lessons to large canvases, producing meticulously painted buildings, windows and sidewalks, and almost no people, except for those reflected in his windows. Also: no traffic jams, dirt or menace, unless you’re chilled by the unreal purity and perfection of the streets.

Jessica May points out that he does show graffiti and uneven pavements on occasion. In his 1979 canvas Jone’s Diner, Estes reveals a yellow curb that has been scuffed by too many passing cars. “Richard has told me that it takes a long time to paint peeling paint,” May says. “It’s the hardest thing to paint.”

Estes takes chunks of reality — a hyper-realistic reality that’s clean and pure — and combines the chunks into something that doesn’t really exist except on his canvases. And here’s the thing about those canvases, and why Estes says you can’t see them in reproduction: They are canvases.

“You get up close and they’re really paintings,” May says. “In photographs, when they’re reproduced in books, they often look like photographs. But when you get into this exhibition and you see them as paintings, you see how very present the paint is on the surface.”

The brushwork, the gesture of paint applied to cloth, the human touch — it’s all there. In person (the Smithsonian show runs through Feb. 8), the clarity, precision and sheer meticulous labor of the work becomes mesmerizing.

If you don’t live near one of the galleries listed, you can click here to purchase.